Recognizing opportunities

A blog on PR, conversation, new media and communication PRactice examples. You may find more than you expect, but still less than necessary to understand the vibrant conversation environment. I will write about the new and the beyond.

Do you know how to be a PR?

Carl Gustav Jung, a psychiatrist and the founder of the methodology of analytical psychology (among other things), stated that in order to understand psychology you had to possess knowledge in the following fields: philology, history, archeology, mythology, folklore studies, ethnology, philosophy, theology, children psychology and biology!

Which knowledges do we have to possess in order to understand communicology and our (humble) PR? An which skills…

Talking to my fellow colleagues, we realized that not many PRs have good knowledge in, let’s say, general culture, linguistics, economy, management, politics, psychology, art, history (of business, communications and society as a whole).

Wide education – better focus in doing business!- (DDj, sometime, somewhere)

When it comes to skills necessary to make a good PR manager out of you, I would emphasize the development and perfection of learning abilities, listening, reading, problem solving and creative thinking, group productivity, negotiation, organizational and leadership skills in general.

With this base, our profession is just like the media and the public present it: we are mere operators of promotional activities aiming at the additional product or (in best case) brand promotion.

With the knowledges and abilities of that kind – it is no wonder that we are seen as chatters in stead of the wise, direct communicators to all target publics and the most wide community.

Pay no attention to me, I’m just thinking out loud…

Your DDj

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How to think smarter?

In the last week of September, I was one of the few guests of Zavarovalnica Maribor, and having dinner with Edward de Bono. De Bono coined the term of lateral thinking and created the concept of ‘six thinking hats’ – a well-known model for creative solving of problems.

I have to say, a Grand man of the present and a warm speaker.

There is no person in the world who doesn’t want to be creative. Everybody has to want to be creative. Life can be more interesting, fun and advanced if followed by creativity.– Edward de Bono

I’ll try to sum up the main elements of De Bono’s scientific work.

We’ll start with a few lines on the theory of thinking…

From the aspect of cognitive contents, thinking can be:

  • Convergent– starts from the assumption that there is only one solution and all activities and efforts are directed towards the finding of that one ‘right’ solution
  • Divergent – the thoughts are not directed towards one, but more different solutions.

In psychology, there is a division into:

  • Vertical – thinking that is being developed ‘step by step’, and thoughts are aimed at one goal. This is a slow a and tiring process, freed of enthusiasm and freshness, but very often successful; and
  • Lateral – thinking as De Bono defined it and it basically means that thoughts choose a ‘curvy’ road; with many associations and sparkles which enrich the main stream of thinking.

Lateral thinking results in creative ideas whose implementation creates innovations. – De Bono

Creativity & innovation…

It is crucial to understand that creativity is an ability of making new ideas. Even more, however, you have to understand innovation as the implementation of those creative ideas. It is only logical to conclude that mankind, as we know it, is filled with amazing visual, cultural and technological treasures-> all the results of creativity!

In history, creativity was assigned to the Muses, the God’s intervention, the cognitive process, social surrounding, and finally, during the XX century, creativity was understood as a possibility, that is, potential, of each individual.

Thinking today…

De Bono reminds us that our innate way of thinking is based on analyses and making conclusions. A situation is being analyzed in order to identify any standard element for it to be used in a standard reply. This, according to him, is an exquisite thing, but not even close enough to makeing something new and fresh. De Bono sees the dominance of vertical thinking mainly in the bases of our culture and a specific way of thinking making us believe that we always have to push forward on a predetermined direction.

If an idea is not absurd in its beginning, nothing will come out of it!- A. Einstein

Thinking & business…

De Bono sees the pulsating economical and overall social movements, fast pace and permanent pressure the companies are disposed to as great markets and playgrounds for the implementation of the lateral-> out of the ordinary, fresh and dynamic way of thinking.

Do not presuppose, in any way, that creative ideas are always high-risk businesses.- De Bono

De Bono points out that companies often claim that they have all the new ideas they need. Creativity is in most cases an unknown quantity and big corporations do not like to put themselves into mercy or unmercy of something so insecure. Likewise, there are companies which believe in the osmosis; they let others try out the new ideas and if they are successful, take all the credit for themselves. The new ideas are being absorbed through the process of ‘osmosis’, even unconsciously. To make it short and simple, corporations do not want new ideas; they want ‘successful new ideas’

The bigger the productivity in a company, the bigger the need is for creativity. Productivity will elicit the max provided by a new idea. If a company is unproductive, it will have less new ideas. Productivity and creativity are complementary to one another, not the other way around.- Edward de Bono

In order to graphically show where the thoughts are going to, and where they could must go to, he created a model of ‘six hats’. In this way, De Bono suggested that the problem or challenge should be put into pieces, taking into account, when giving solutions, the six elements of the stream of thought (ratio, information, sensation, but also optimism…). Only when each angle of perspective is touched by our cognitive activities do we find an adequate solution and make the process which helped us come to that solution worthy of creative potential of each person.

How to be (even) better…

Although we are not all born to be artists, chefs or sportsmen, there are numerous techniques which can help us perfect our abilities. It’s the same with knowledges. It’s the same with thinking, in that aspect. De Bono believes that with the use of new methods of thinking, together with permanent training and curiosity, our cognitive and creative possibilities are also becoming bigger.

Hm, we could give it a shot, but I am not convinced that every stone is a precious one, i.e. that it can become precious. In that spirit, pay attention to the basic features of the persons with high potential for creativity -> innovation- perhaps with it we can more easily comprehend which of our own features we can work on in order to increase our fresh intellectual capacity:

  1. 1. You have a polyvalent talent
1. You are highly specialized
  1. 2. You are familiar with diverse cultural values
2. You reject everything out of the ordinary
  1. 3. You are independent in thinking
3. You expect quick & superficial results
  1. 4. You communicate your thoughts & feelings well
4. You reject everything that doesn’t give instant results
  1. 5. You possess active intellectual curiosity
5. You are afraid of an embarrassing truth
  1. 6. You like to play & compete
6. You are not motivated to work
  1. 7. You think highly of yourself
7. You reject personal responsibility
  1. 8. You find pleasure in working
8. You are not comfortable with collective work
  1. 9. You are original & funny
9. You pay too much attention to your superiors
10. You are ambitious & confident 10. You criticize everything modern and new
11. You do not have affinity towards authorities 11. You are afraid of failure & ‘play the safe card’
12. You are persistent & committed to work 12. You are a pessimist, discourage your surrounding, constantly criticizing
13. You are a bit egoistic and narcissistic 13. You lack self-confidence

New times demand new ideas!

What can we offer to the world?

Your DDj

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The world in the next decade?

At the end of August, the city of Bled was a host to a chosen circle of political and business representatives of Europe.

In addition to the numerous guests of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia- the host of the Strategic Conference 2010, in those days Bled was visited by the Prime Minister of Belgium, Secretary General of the United Arab Emirates, Minister of Foreign Affairs of India, assistant to Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil and many others.

DDj was very honored to be a part of this, thanks to the friends from the American Chamber of Commerce in Slovenia and the invitation from the Slovenian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Samuel Žgobar.

After the excuisite experiences I had after the lectures and conversations with professor Wilcox, Michael Porter, Al Gore, and Bill Clinton, in Bled I was also attending the lecture of the key note speaker, general Colin Powell.

General Colin Powell is the former Secretary General of the United States of America (2001- 2005), as well as the former Secretary for Security of the USA (1987- 1989).

The topic of the lecture was the future of the European Union in the next decade and the role of small countries in the process of general stabilization. A topic wide enough to see just how precise the speaker is.

At the beginning, Powell pointed out that after his military career of almost four decades, it was hard not to notice things from a perspective of a soldier and that the road we were heading to should have been seen from a perspective of the past.

Foreseeing the future through the past perspective is the key.- C. Powell

On China…

He is fascinated with the country which owes its global growth primarily to the middle classes. Further progressive growth of the Republic of China is more than evident, as is its potential for domination in the global economy on all levels. As opposed to the strong development, Powell showed his personal discontent with the system which doesn’t allow its citizens to use that potential. The external expansion is in opposition to the internal control in the aspect of rights, possibilities and citizens’ freedoms, and according to Powell, this causes a serious threat to the stability within the country’s borders.

On terrorism…

Powell was the Secretary General in the USA in the year September 11th happened, so he was very subjective on this topic, even in this public performance. ‘Nobody is immune to terrorism’, he pointed out, ‘and terrorists do not tear down buildings and kill people for the sake of tearing down buildings and killing people – they do it to terrorize us– make us scared and insecure.’. In the end of this personal interpretation of terrorism he emphasized: ‘However, they, be them 10, 100, 1000… cannot make us different than we are- devoted to freedom and democracy. We can only do that to ourselves.’

Look where you were before- look where you are now- in order to know where to go!- C. Powell

On tomorrow…

In the next decade, Powell sees the world finally moving on the bases that are not connected to war, but to healthy creativity and innovations. Stable economy in the first place, then (with the rules of cause and effect) stable politics will be the distinctive elements which will tell apart successful from the unsuccessful ones.

Give people jobs. This is the only way they can bring dignity to their homes once they come back from work. – C. Powell

On ecological sustainability and climatic changes…

A topic you cannot omit… Powell made a very rational point that ‘ it is not important whether the scientists or Al Gore were right. It’s simply not good to send this amount of poison into the atmosphere.’

On the Internet…

A 73-year-old soldier was very passionate when he said: ‘In the next ten years, we will all be talking about the Internet!

The Internet is fascinating! Everything is there! And everyone is there. I can no longer communicate with my grandchildren unless I’m on Twitter or Facebook. No, you cannot ignore this phenomenon. You have to comprehend the strength and the opportunities the Internet Era carries with itself.’ – C. Powell

In the end, did I learn about something completely new or unfamiliar? I wouldn’t comment on that. But, to hear very personal observations on highly global topics by someone such as Collin Powell was more than a memorable experience. Given that there were no reporters on the event, we are sharing this, nonetheless, on blog- in the spirit of general Powell’s understanding of the Internet.

Above all, in the spirit of an era of civil reporting which we are lucky to be a part of.

Your DDj ;)

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Case: Banca Intesa and a well-meaning citizen

Some web locations contained texts linked to the case of Vladimir Čučović and his initiative which was directed to Banca Intesa in Belgrade.

The on-line discussion and positioning of a ‘little man’ in front of a ‘big company’, with the ‘ever mighty’ citizen medium -> the Internet <- in the middle, was appealing enough for me to deal with.

Things, as usual, are not black and white.

Based on the information by the on-line sources writing about the event, as well as on the documented facts which I received as soon as yesterday (Sunday), I will try to explain three aspects of this case:

  • Banca Intesa’s attitude towards the security of its users and the protection of visual identity
  • Banca Intesa’s attitude towards a citizen’s initiative
  • most important to this blog -> the approach of the sector of corporate communications and the marketing sector of the Bank to an on-line reputational risk

1. Attitude of Banca Intesa towards its users’ security and…

  • 1.1. Action ->

In February, Banca Intesa received an on-line initiative by Mr Čučković presenting a complete solution for the visual and structural appearance of their web-site. Čučković mentioned later on the e-criminal portal that this well-meaning initiative was sent without any financial expectancy, i.e for free. The Bank’s official attitude, however, stated the following:

…not for free, as he said, but in replace to a ‘support’ to a project e-market in the value of 50 to 70 thousand RSD a month. As a proof, we are attaching both messages sent by the subject to the bank. After the consideration of the offer, we decided that it was not interesting for us and kindly thanked Mr Čučković.

  • 1.2. Reaction of the bank in Serbia ->

The Bank responded with the following e-mail:

Dear Sir,

We thank you for your suggestion.
At this moment, we have no interest in developing such Bank portals.

  • 1.3. Reaction of the Banca Intesa Sao Paolo Group ->

With regular on-line monitoring (some companies really do this), the Italian headquarters noticed the existence of this site and that it implied the activities of an official character, so they elaborated Group’s reaction to the office in Belgrade:

We noticed a content which can lead a visitor to a thought that this is one of bank’s official internet presentations. Due to the fact that the website contains the logo of Intesa Sao Paolo without our permission, in addition to the promotion of the services of e-banking, we hereby bring charges to the Department of defense against high tech criminal, part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, since, besides the unauthorized use of the company’s logo, we consider the site prone to all kinds of misuse, such as phishing, blackmails, etc. in the future.

What’s very important to point out here is that financial institutions have a huge responsibility towards the protection of its users and their data, and no matter how relevant the risk is, in most number of cases it is treated under very strictly determined procedures. The reaction is instant -> the reaction is fast (you don’t say for banks!) -> the reaction is synchronized.

This is particularly significant when it comes to situations even close to phishing, a form of Internet fraud which has increased, on a global level, extensively.

Phishing is a way of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public. Phishing is typically carried out by e-mail orinstant messaging,[1] and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to fool users,[2] and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies.[3] Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures. – Wikipedia.

If a financial institution should react in any different way, we should definitely be worried.

In accordance to the procedures, the international process against Mr Čučković was initiated.

2. The attitude of Banca Intesa towards a citizen’s initiative

  • 2.1. Action of the Bank ->

We thanked the subject via e-mail. All further communication was to be done by ways of official investigation structures.

  • 2.2. Reaction of Čučković ->

When sending the official attitude of Intesa, Maja Kolar, director of corporate communications of this institution, further explained this relation:

After being informed that we initiated arbitrage and after the Ministry of Internal Affairs had contacted him, Mr Čučković sent a letter to the bank demanding to speak to some of the officials. As per his demand, he received a call from a colleague from the Department of management of users’ satisfaction. In this phone call, Mr Čučković insisted that the arbitrage be dismissed or he would ‘adress the media’. The colleague informed him that the arbitrage had been instructed by the head office of the groupation and hence could not be stopped, since this was not in accordance to the Group’s policy.

  • 2.3. Reaction of the community ->

Čučković described the incident on the portal e-crime and a few days later this was announced on Istok’s blog titled: ‘ Catastrophic PR of Banca Intesa Belgrade’. In addition, links related to this event were posted on Twitter, Facebook, and finally on GlobalVoices. A strong on-line reaction was a result of empathy by the internet users, but also of a very based impression that banks were truly too rigorous, slow and institutions oriented to a one-way communication. Just enough motives for everyone (including me) ‘to take sides’ on this man who had a good intention and an interesting initiative not asking almost anything in return and who eventually, because of this, became a subject of local and international investigation.

In comments on the post by Istok Pavlović, other users, shocked by the story, shared their negative experiences with this bank with the visitors of the blog, as well as WITH THE ENTIRE WORLD, ONCE AND FOR ALL. Among others, the owner of a company called Madnet showed his discontent, signing his name:

Nenad Orlic on August 14th, 2010, 7:43 pm

The bank in question seems to know nothing about normal communication. A week or two ago, one of our employees administered a request for a credit. He was rejected and after politely asking them for a reason, he received the following answer: ‘the company you are working for is in blockage or has not payed its taxes’. Naturally, he expressed his concern to everybody in the firm. If this were true, no questions asked, but our company has not once been blocked in the ten years of existence, let alone not payed taxes. The bank received a letter of protest, but to this day we have not received any reply.

In this manner, as a consequence of inarticulate systematic on-line communication procedures, the bank was promoted on the Internet (read -> browsers) in a very bad way, which even if it was not too harmful for them, most certainly didn’t do them any good.

Huge issue: In practice, in most of the cases direct contact and two-way communication solves all the misunderstandings. In the end, compromise is the option which makes all the participants of a negotiation winners… smaller or bigger, but winners. This is not the only and most certainly the last initiative which will be processed officially and without the perception of dialogue and giving meaning to the ‘small’, ‘ordinary’ people. We have the Internet now- so there are no more ‘small’ and ‘big'; What’s more- there are no ‘local’ and ‘global’ conversations. There are no ‘local’ and ‘global’ markets, either -> Markets are a conversation, if we want to reflect on the first thesis by ClueTrain. Bad or reckless conversation by a company with no matter who (or how important that person is) ‘can become global at any moment‘.

Markets really are a conversation- this should be noted and all business and conversational procedures should be (re)set accordingly.

In connection to this topic, I sincerely recommend the companies to read the post by Dragan Varagić, titled: Systematic building of relations and trust on the Internet.

3. Attitude of the Sector of corporate communications and marketing of Banca Intesa towards an on-line reputational risk

  • 3.1. Action by DDj ->

I contacted Maja Kolar on Sunday around noon via Facebook message:

DDj FB mail:

Dear colleague,

On various web locations there is a case of Mr Čučković and the initiative he addressed to your bank, as well as the reaction you had to this initiative.

You can find more details on:
as well as on:

I ask for your quick reply and opinion on this topic, given that I intend to write a post on the blog on citizens’ initiative, reactions of the on-line community and, in the end, the bank, the subject of this entire story.

If you have questions concerning any details you can contact me on 0659300ddj.


  • 3.2. Reaction of the director of communications of the bank ->

Less than an hour later (note that the day was Sunday) I got my reply, as well as the relevant documents from Intesa, but also a call from Maja. In her written statement she said the following:

‘there are certain things you cannot trade and negotiate with. In the case of a bank, this is client security when using the bank’s services, be them transactions on-line, on an ATM or in a branch office.’

Still, what us active bloggers aiming for credibility in the community have to be seriously worried about is this sentence by Maja Kolar:

Thank you for your post. I am pleasantly surprised that any of the bloggers interested in this topic ask for the bank’s side of the story before forming their attitude.

I had to ask myself a question here- was the Serbian blogosphere becoming the same as the Serbian (off-line) mass media: a one-way directed arena?

We can all learn something from this:

  • Us (bloggers) -> since blogging is the informal, personal, but yet significant form of activism. Situations are rarely black and white. If we seek relevance, we have to use as relevant information as possible.
  • Citizens dealing with some sort of injustice -> because we are all similar on-line. The channels are open to a point of no return and everyone has a chance.
  • Companies -> when we talk about the Internet, we talk about people. People are not merely consumers and buyers… they are also the media, employees, stock holders… who knows what else! The time of systematic approach to on-line conversation has long started…

Regards, DDj.

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A century for the good things – the future of business

A very important thing is being neglected by more and more experts from various communication and management areas . You can’t see it, perhaps.

Nevertheless, the entire story about the Internet revolution does not stop to surprise us (pleasantly- unpleasantly, depending on which side of the ring we are standing). Each day there is something new… In December 2009, Facebook overcame Yahoo by a number of individual visits, and is coming close to Google as well. Google News had more individual posts than any on-line editions and variables of the New York Times… Then, there is the social gaming… games on social networks – 55% of the players are women and the average age of the gamers is 43 years. The baby boomers (those born between the years 1943 and 1960) as a demographical group marked the biggest growth in profile management and maintenance on the social networks years back.

The conversational trends manifesting in a more frequent on-line connecting between people among the demographic categories are closely connected to the desire for people to create the long tail. More precisely, to make us all together, all 2 billion of us, influence small and big things…

When we act apart, our goals are different. When we act together- even for a day -> WE ARE MAKING THE (WHOLE) WORLD A BETTER PLACE!

For example, according to Edelman Trust Barometer for 2010, the most important thing to people when it comes to companies is NOT the financial power; what’s more, it is in the last place. People CARE THE MOST about the transparency and trust in the company and its well-being vision! Yup.

Individuals around the world have expressed their attitude in numerous studies -> that they are willing to change even the hardcore habits in the name of the companies (organizations) and their products (services) if those companies are willing to change the world for better!

Now… when companies start to do their business thinking BETTER is (as a consequence, sooner or later) MORE, and not MORE is BETTER (the XX century doctrine – short-term) they begin to make substantially better financial and overall business results. To be more precise, in the last 30 years, as many as 80 academic studies were made and even 53% of them noted a significant financial success of the companies who were truly socially responsible and changing the world with their strategic decisions.

We can now play ping-pong with this… say blah-blah… this and that… hen & egg and similar empty phrases, but one thing we cannot neglect:

  • the business models of the XX century-> meaningless in the XXI century!
  • the cultural models of the XX century-> meaningless in the XXI century!
  • the educational models of the XX century-> meaningless in the XXI century!- kids can no longer stand the passiveness and boredom in classes! A condition they have no control of and no active participation in…

and (ONLY) then can we come to the theory of the Internet, well-known (let’s say) to everyone:

  • COMMUNICATION models of the XX century -> meaningless in the XXI century! These changes in communication were a trigger… even if everybody accepts them and opens to the public via all-mighty channels -> nothing will be done on the middle or long-run! That was the first round! The first task! It has to be accompanied by a true wish of the companies to create products and services which are valuable and good; to make strategies which fit into the vision of well-being for everyone (not only for shareholders); that in the process of collaboration with us who make the added or any other value they clean after the shit they (by themselves) accumulated for centuries back. Or there will be no more of them… We’ll see and read about it in 10, 20 years from now… then discuss business models…

Clay Shirky said: When we change the way we communicate-> we change the society!

Who’s up for it? Who? Everybody but the companies!

The time of the people is coming… It has come.

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What is a blog?

At this moment, I am participating in the creation of three corporate blogs, and lately, a few people dear to me also started blogging… with what they personally have to offer… for their own (and my own) pleasure. The same questions impose here…

I will upload some fresh lectures on corporate blogging… a couple of simply useful things.

However, I wanted to state something else… How do I see blog?

When I open somebody’s blog, I want to have a sense of looking the author directly into his wide open eyes! That’s the impression I want! This is when a blog goes to the readers and comes back to them… because I love looking people in the eyes… eyes wide open.

If, for some reason, I visit somebody’s personal blog and encounter a squinty, boring look, I rarely make connection to the blogger… this usually means that the blogger has no clear attitude or won’t show it or has no idea of what he wants to accomplish with the blog and the community around it. Sometimes it means that the blog is sludgy… you know, like it hides some intentions… it provokes, leads me on…

That I don’t like..

This is, naturally, a personal impression of mine. How I see and love blogs.

When talking about corporate blogs, the situation is somewhat similar, but still different in certain aspects (more complex).

The similarity lies in the fact that in order for the corporate blog to be successful from the very start, we have to forget all about making the blog! The making of an effective corporate blog necessarily (and primarily) implies the making of effective bloggers!

We know some people from your company. They’re pretty cool on-line. Do you have any more like that you’re hiding? Can they come out and play? – Cluetrain Manifesto

It is essential to build healthy foundations of a corporate blog… there are many ways to do this, and the regional and world practice is (ful)filled with various examples (you all know the story of Direct2dell, and

As for me, I think that the simplest and most effective recommendation as to how to corporate-blog successfully is the sentence by the CEO at Sun Microsystems (Oracle), Jonathan Schwartz he shared with his (blogging) employees:

  • Do not do anything stupid.
  • Write about something you know.
  • Make it interesting!

That much! That exactly! The essence!

*Digression: the same CEO recently quit the Sun exclusively sharing this on his Twitter status and in haiku…Too cool!

So, my wish is for you to give me a deep, wide-open look in the eyes when I open your on-line diary! And when I close my eyes for a moment or deny you of anything, hit me in the head with it on so that I can come to senses as soon as possible.


p.s. I don’t know if I’ve ever done this in public, but I am thankful to the end to Varagić for making me start blogging in three steps! One of these days I shall write about what that decision meant for me. PRiceless!

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Community management from the first hand

Do you remember the post The Wor(l)d is not for sale? Well, there was a sequel. These posts were written with the goal to enlighten active online users that managed to build significant social media capital and explain what it means to be working for an agency or a brand as a community manager, as well as what expectations both side have to fulfill and assess whether every chance is indeed a good chance.

Hana [Cyber Bosanka] bravely shared her experience in a recent post. She was commissioned online by Jasno & Glasno to manage a FB page of a certain brand. Due to her trust in Borja and his personal social media capital/legitimacy she was less careful. In addition, this was surely due to the lack of experience. The terms weren’t precisely defined, same as payment deadlines, and I’m not quite sure how it was in relation to the expectations and measurability of her work.

Either way, I don’t doubt Borja’s good intentions either, I know him and I consider him a great guy. The same applies to Hana, where with her post she only wanted to help others, the agency that hired her, and ultimately – herself. I’m writing this because I think it’s important to stress how much we can LEARN from such a public case study!

If we’re the employer, we have to focus on themes such as overall management, people and time management, analytics, negotiating skills, leadership abilities in general.

Suggested literature: Managing virtual teams -> Leading Virtual Teams, Harvard Business Press + How to lead or manage virtual teams + Fostering Creativity, Harvard Business Press

There are (at least) two main preconditions:

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